The Technology Portal
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τ?χνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογ?α, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e. g. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
The Rolls-Royce Merlin
is a British, liquid-cooled, 27-litre
(1,650 cu in
, V-12 piston aero engine
, designed and built by Rolls-Royce Limited
. Initially known as the PV-12, Rolls-Royce named the engine the Merlin
following the company convention of naming its piston aero engines after birds of prey
. The PV-12 first ran in 1933, and a series of rapidly applied developments brought about by wartime needs improved the engine's performance markedly. The first operational aircraft to enter service using the Merlin were the Fairey Battle
, Hawker Hurricane
and Supermarine Spitfire
. More Merlins were made for the four-engined Avro Lancaster
heavy bomber than any other aircraft; however, the engine is most closely associated with the Spitfire and powered its maiden flight in 1936. Considered a British icon, the Merlin was one of the most successful aircraft engines of the World War II era, and many variants were built by Rolls-Royce in Derby
, as well as by Ford of Britain
in Trafford Park
. The Packard V-1650
was a version of the Merlin built in the United States. Production ceased in 1950 after a total of almost 150,000 engines had been delivered, the later variants being used for airliners
and military transport aircraft
. In military use the Merlin was superseded by its larger capacity stablemate, the Rolls-Royce Griffon
. Merlin engines remain in Royal Air Force
service today with the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight
, and power many restored aircraft in private ownership worldwide.
In this month
- 17 June 1946 – The first telephone call using the Mobile Telephone Service, a precursor to the cellular phone, is made in St. Louis, Missouri
- 20 June 2003 – The Wikimedia Foundation (logo pictured), the non-profit that operates Wikipedia and its sister projects, is founded in St. Petersburg, Florida
- 28 June 1972 – Atari, a pioneer in arcade games, home video game consoles, and home computers, is founded as Atari, Inc.
- 28 June 2006 – The Series of tubes speech is delivered by then-United States Senator Ted Stevens to describe the Internet and defend the Senator's opposition to network neutrality
Did you know...
was a German Lutheran mathematician
, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion
, codified by later astronomers based on his works Astronomia nova
, Harmonices Mundi
, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy
. Before Kepler, planets' paths were computed by combinations of the circular motions of the celestial orbs
. After Kepler, astronomers shifted their attention from orbs
—paths that could be represented mathematically as an ellipse
. Kepler's laws also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton
's theory of universal gravitation
. During his career Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a Graz
seminary school, an assistant to Tycho Brahe
, the court mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II
, a mathematics teacher in Linz
, and an adviser to General Wallenstein
. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics
and helped to legitimize the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei
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