1989

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1989 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1989
MCMLXXXIX
Ab urbe condita2742
Armenian calendar1438
?? ????
Assyrian calendar6739
Bahá'í calendar145–146
Balinese saka calendar1910–1911
Bengali calendar1396
Berber calendar2939
British Regnal year37 Eliz. 2 – 38 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2533
Burmese calendar1351
Byzantine calendar7497–7498
Chinese calendar戊辰(Earth Dragon)
4685 or 4625
    — to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
4686 or 4626
Coptic calendar1705–1706
Discordian calendar3155
Ethiopian calendar1981–1982
Hebrew calendar5749–5750
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2045–2046
 - Shaka Samvat1910–1911
 - Kali Yuga5089–5090
Holocene calendar11989
Igbo calendar989–990
Iranian calendar1367–1368
Islamic calendar1409–1410
Japanese calendarShōwa 64 / Heisei 1
(平成元年)
Javanese calendar1921–1922
Juche calendar78
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4322
Minguo calendarROC 78
民國78年
Nanakshahi calendar521
Thai solar calendar2532
Tibetan calendar阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
2115 or 1734 or 962
    — to —
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
2116 or 1735 or 963
Unix time599616000 – 631151999

1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1989th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 989th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1980s decade.

1989 was a turning point in political history because a wave of revolutions swept the Eastern Bloc in Europe, starting in Poland and Hungary, with experiments in power sharing, coming to a head with the opening of the Berlin Wall in November, and the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia, embracing the overthrow of the communist dictatorship in Romania in December, and ending in December 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. These are collectively known as the Revolutions of 1989.

It was the year of the first Brazilian presidential elections in 29 years, since the end of the military government in 1985 which ruled the country for more than twenty years, and marked the redemocratization process's final point.

F. W. de Klerk was elected as State President of South Africa, and his regime gradually dismantled the apartheid system over the next five years, culminating with the 1994 election that brought jailed African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela to power.

In contrast, the year saw the violent suppression of mass political protest in China, in June. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 ended with a military crackdown resulting in the deaths of a number of protesters.

The first commercial Internet service providers surfaced in this year,[1][2] as well as the first written proposal for the World Wide Web and New Zealand, Japan and Australia's first Internet connections. The first babies born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis were conceived in late 1989, starting the era of designer babies.[3]

1989 marked the beginning of the Heisei period in Japan, which lasted until 2019. It is also the latest year, when written in Roman numerals, to have an L.

Events[edit]

January[edit]

January 20: George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States

February[edit]

March[edit]

Mass demonstration at State TV HQ

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

People's Liberation Army were to drive away students in Tiananmen Square.

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall
A peaceful demonstration in Prague during the Velvet Revolution.

December[edit]

Flames engulf a building following the United States invasion of Panama.

Date unknown[edit]

Births[edit]

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

Emperor Hirohito

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

References[edit]

  1. ^ . Sublime IP. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  2. ^ . Archive.wired.com. 2009-01-04. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  3. ^ . LA Times.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Crystal, David, ed. (1990). The Cambridge Encyclopedia. Cambridge University Press. p. RR69.
  5. ^ Wilkens, Herbert; Maennig, Wolfgang (1997). Transition in Eastern Europe: Current Issues and Perspectives. Duncker & Humblot. p. 71. ISBN 978-3-428-49107-0.
  6. ^ . Timeline.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  7. ^ . 24 August 1990.
  8. ^ . Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  9. ^ .
  10. ^ . Bleskon.com. Archived from the original on 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  11. ^ . Archive.globalgayz.com. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  12. ^ . Birds-eye.net. 1989-06-03. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  13. ^ Tribune, Ray Moseley and Joseph A. Reaves, Chicago. . chicagotribune.com.
  14. ^ Belsie, Laurent (June 29, 2009). . The Christian Science Monitor.
  15. ^ a b c Archontology.org: A Guide for Study of Historical Offices: South Africa: Heads of State: 1961-1994 (Accessed on 14 April 2017)
  16. ^ . Bc.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  17. ^ a b . Philly.com. Articles.philly.com. 1989-11-17. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  18. ^ . 1989-06-07. Archived from the original on 2014-09-30. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  19. ^ Rule, Sheila (1989-10-02). . The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  20. ^ . Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  21. ^ . Std.com. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  22. ^ . Warsawvoice.pl. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  23. ^ Hayes, Thomas C. (1990-02-28). . The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
  24. ^ Pareles, Jon (December 10, 1989). . The New York Times.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ash, Timothy Garton. The Magic Lantern: The Revolution of '89 Witnessed in Warsaw, Budapest, Berlin, and Prague (1999) excerpt
  • Kenney, Padraic, ed. 1989: Democratic Revolutions at the Cold War's End: A Brief History with Documents (2009)
  • Sebestyen, Victor. Revolution 1989: The Fall of the Soviet Empire (2010) excerpt

External links[edit]